Cybersecurity Terms


Artificial Intelligence: The development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence.

Apples to Apples

A comparison that occurs to demonstrate that 2 items or 2 groups of items are the same. This is usually expressed in a sales discussion as in “Let’s compare apples to apples”. RedLegg is currently seeking an alternative to this phrase.

Application Testing

Process which applications are tested for quality, functionality, compatibility, usability, performance, and other characteristics.


Advanced Persistent Threat.


RedLegg-created methodology that takes a holistic approach to risk management by focusing on 5 key components: Assess, Remediate, Monitor, Educate, Enforce.


Process of establishing who is behind a cyber attack.

Back door

A way to enter a program that doesn’t require authentication.

Best Practices

Commonly used term, loosely defined, that reflects the experience and beliefs of technology practitioners relating to specific industries and technology management.

Black Box

Tests the functionality of an application or networking without knowledge of the internal structure or components.


Chief Information Security Officer: Individual who is responsible for maintaining the security of a company’s computer systems and related assets. RedLegg provides virtual CISO (vCISO) advisory services.


A way to package applications and their dependencies.

Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF)

A programmatic flaw allowing an attacker to force a victim’s browser to send an HTTP request.


A form of online currency, often used as the ransom in ransomware attacks.


Cloud Security Alliance. A not-for-profit organization with a mission to promote the use of best practice for providing security assurance within Cloud Computing & to provide education on the uses of Cloud Computing to help secure all forms of computing.


Certificate of Cloud Security Knowledge.


Common Vulnerability and Exposures: A catalog of known and common security threats.


Someone who commits cybercrimes, using computing devices as a tool to carry out conventions crimes such as fraud, theft, and gambling; as a target for malicious access, spreading viruses, data theft, or identity theft; or to store data obtained illegally.

Dark Web

Websites that are only accessible on ‘darknets’, which require specific software, configuration, or authorization to access.


Information, including raw (unprocessed) data, processed data (such as statistics), and metadata, which is information about other data (descriptive, structural, administrative, etc.).

Data Storage

Anything with information recorded on it or within it.

Digital Security Services

Security tool, engineering, documentation, and executive advisory services employed to meet critical cybersecurity needs.


The process of scrambling data or message content to make it unreadable or secret.


A part of computer system/network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting outward communication.

Gap Assessment

Analysis that compares your current security state against common frameworks or security best practices.

GDPR: General Data Protection Regulation

The European Union General Data Protection Regulation (EU GDPR) is a set of rules governing how organizations that have data controlling, processing, or targeting activities established in the EU must process the personal data of data subjects (anyone whose data is collected while they are in the EU, regardless of their nationality or residency). The regulation includes consent, retention, transparency, behavior monitoring, breach reporting, and automated processing requirements. GDPR defines responsibilities for organizations, regardless of EU processing location or data subject nationality, that: (1)Broaden the definition of personal data to include biometric, genetic, and cultural/economic aspects (2) Ensure the privacy and protection of personal data (3)Provide data subjects with certain rights and (4)Assign powers to regulators to ask for demonstrations of accountability—or even impose significant fines—in cases where an organization is not complying with GDPR requirements. GDPR is not open to interpretation and was implemented on May 25, 2018.


Someone who breaks into systems and exploit the details of programmable systems and how to stretch their capabilities.

Incident Response

An organized approach to addressing and managing the aftermath of a security breach or cyberattack in a way that limits damage and reduces recovery time and costs.

Information Security Services

A comprehensive and holistic approach to protecting individuals and firms from cyber attacks.


Abbreviation for “information security.”

Injection Vulnerabilities

Flaws that allow an attacker to trick an application into executing unintended commands or access data without proper authorization.

Internet of Things (IoT)

Refers to the continually growing network of physical objects that have internet connectivity, and the communication that occurs between these objects and other internet devices

Log Source

The automatically produced and time-stamped documentation of events relevant to a system.


Abbreviation for “malicious software.”

Managed Detection and Response

All-encompassing cybersecurity service used to detect and respond to threats.

Managed Security Services

Oversight of a company’s network and information system security.

Network Configuration

Process of setting a network’s controls, flow, and operation.


Abbreviation for “operational security.”

OWASP Top 10

The Open Web Application Security Project publishes yearly a compilation of application security risks, a powerful awareness document for web application security. It represents a broad consensus about the most critical security risks to web applications.


A piece of software designed to update a computer program to fix/improve it.

Penetration Testing

A simulated attack on a computer system to identify security-related issues and evaluate the security posture of related resources. Also known as ‘pen testing.’


A fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details, often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.

Phishing Test

Purposely trying to hack into your own network to discover loopholes within its security framework.

Policy Framework Development

Help organizations to properly articulate the organization’s desired behavior, mitigate risk and contribute to achieving the organization’s goals.

Puppy Mill (pen testing)

Pen test puppy mills run an automated scanner, take the report, convert it into a Word document, and then submit it to the customer: a quick and very inexpensive method that is not complete penetration testing.


A type of malware that locks your computer and won’t let you access your files until a ransom is paid.


RedLeg (one g) is slang for military artillery personnel.

RedLegg Mission

To improve clients’ security posture by providing superior security services.

RedLegg Vision

To provide a balanced and holistic approach to assessing, building and maintaining our client’s security needs, includingevolving security practices & improving operational security.

Risk Analysis

The review of the risks associated with an event or action.

Risk Assessment

Formal evaluation of an organization’s information security program that quantifies the risk by evaluating assets that need protection, the threats to those assets, and the likelihood and impact should those threats could be realized.

SDLC: Software Development Life Cycle

The process of dividing software development work into distinct phases to improve design, product management, and project management. The methodology may include the pre-definition of specific deliverables and artifacts that are created and completed by a project team to develop or maintain an application.

Secure Code Review

A specialized task involving manual and/or automated review of an application’s source code to identify security-related weaknesses.

Security Misconfigurations

A security flaw where the application framework and server are not properly configured and hardened, leading to improper information disclosure or unauthorized access.

Sensitive Data Exposure

A security flaw resulting in data not being properly protected, allowing an attacker to steal it.


“Security Information and Event Management” provides real-time analysis of security alerts.

Social Engineering

Phone call/email phishing attempts to extract information that would be useful for a larger attack.


An instance of an attacker pretending to be someone they are not, often occurring via phone or email address.

Static Program Analysis

An analysis of computer software performed without actually executing programs, in contrast with dynamic analysis, which is analysis performed on programs while they are executing code. In static analysis, the code is manually checked to find errors.

Threat Intelligence

Evidence-based knowledge, including context, mechanisms, indicators, implications and actionable advice, about an existing or emerging menace or hazard.

Threat Modeling

Procedure for optimizing network security by identifying objectives and vulnerabilities, and then defining countermeasures to prevent, or mitigate the effects of, threats to the system.

Two-factor Authentication

An extra layer of security above and beyond the traditional username and password.

Tradecraft Labs

One of three divisions of RedLegg. Tradecraft Labs handles pentests and application security.

UTM Management

Devices are traditional firewalls that include additional security features such as, network intrusion prevention, gateway antivirus, gateway anti-spam, VPN, content filtering, load balancing, data loss prevention, and data collection with reporting.


Virtual CISO: CISO-level strategic advice to operational expertise, this program allows an organization to obtain expertise and experience in one or multiple sections of information assurance.


A type of malware that typically is embedded and hidden in a program or file.


Malicious voice solicitation over the phone to extract information or data points that can be used for a later attack.


Abbreviation for “virtual private network”; uses encryption to create a private and secure channel to connect to the internet when you’re on a network that you do not trust.

Vuln Scan

“Vulnerability Scan.”

Vulnerability Management

Cyclical practice of identifying, classifying, remediating, and mitigating vulnerabilities.

White Hat Hacker

An ethical computer hacker, or a computer security expert, who specializes in penetration testing and other testing methodologies that ensure the security of an organization's information systems.

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